Sources of radiation pollution and forming background radiation

22:59 22.08.11

 

І. Natural radiation background

1. Cosmic radiation

2. Emissions of natural radionuclides in the crust of earth, soil, air and water

3. Technologic radiation:


ІІ. Technogenic radioactive impurity

  1. Uranium production and reprocessing
    • Refuse heaps: Radium – 226 (226Ra), Polonium – 210 (210Ро), Thorium – 230 (230Th)
      • Zheltorechinskoye deposit – Dnepropetrovsk region (underground mining method extraction)
      • Pervomayskoye deposit – Dnepropetrovsk region (huge amount of wastes is accumulated)
      • Michurinskoye deposit – Kirovograd region (underground mining method extraction)
      • Vatutinskoye deposit – Kirovograd region (underground mining method extraction)
      • Olkhovskaya shaft – Zhovti Vody
      • Novaya shaft – Zhovti Vody
      • Obyedinennaya shaft – Krivoy Rog
      • Severnaya shaft – vent shaft – Krivoy Rog
      • Shaft No 2/6 – Krivoy Rog
    • Uranium reprocessing wastes: Uranium – 238 (238U), Radium – 226 (226Ra), Kalium – 40(40К), Thorium – 232 (232Th), Thorium – 230 (230Th), Plumbum – 210 (210Pb), Polonium – 210 (210Ро)
    • Adamovskoye deposit – Donetsk region (underground leaching wastes)
    • Bratskoye deposit – Nikolayev region (underground leaching wastes)
    • Dovladovskoye deposit – Dnepropetrovsk region (underground leaching wastes)
    • Tailings pond of the Leach plant in action of the Eastern mining and processing combine – Zhovti Vody
    • Bog iron ore quarry (BIOQ) – Zhovti Vody
    • Shcherbakovskoye tailings pond (Shch) – Zhovti Vody
    • Dneprovskoye tailings pond – Dneprodzerzhinsk Prydneprovsk Chemical Plant (PCP)
    • Zapadnoye tailings pond – Dneprodzerzhinsk PCP
    • Tsentralniy Yar tailings pond – Dneprodzerzhinsk PCP
    • Yugo-Vostochnoye tailings pond – Dneprodzerzhinsk PCP
    • Tailings pond in Sergeya Lazo Street – Dneprodzerzhinsk PCP
    • Sukhachevskoye I section tailings pond – Dnepropetrovsk region PCP
    • Sukhachevskoye II section tailings pond – Dnepropetrovsk region PCP
    • Lanthanum fraction tailings pond (building No 602) – Dnepropetrovsk region PCP
    • Uranium production tailings pond. Blast furnace BF-6 – Dnepropetrovsk region PCP
    • Uranium production storage. Base - S – Dnepropetrovsk region PCP
    • Facilities of non-operating plants (radioactive contamination)
      buildings No 4, No 5, No 6
      building No 27 Dneprodzerzhinsk
      building No 95 PCP
      building No 103
      building No 112
      buildings No 1А; No 1B; No 1U; No 1M;
      No 2 B; No 2V; No 2E
    • Slurry reservoirs pipelines
    • Buildings and constructions of shafts
      • Obyedinennaya – Krivoy Rog
      • Severno-Ventilatsionnaya (vent shaft) No 2/6 – Terni
  1. Radionuclid bury and temporary localization points
    • Radioactive wastes temporary localization points (RWTLP) contain:
      • 300 thousand Curies of cesium – 137
      • 12 thousand Curies of strontium – 90
      • 0,3 thousand Curies of plutonium – 240
    • Burial of radioactive wastes points in 30 km Chernobyl zone.
      • Burial in 13 locations.
      • Burial area is 6,0 million square meters.
      • Burial volume is 1,6 million cubic meters.
      • Full weight of radioactive wastes is 3 million tons.
      • Total activity is 52 thousand Curies (1,9 · 1015Bq)
    • Burial of radioactive wastes points in the III Chernobyl zone
      • Burial in 43 locations
      • Total burial volume is 190 thousand cubic meters
      • Burial area is 0,7 million square meters
      • Full weight of radioactive wastes is 0,35 million tons
    • Burial of radioactive wastes points contain
      • 110 thousand Curies of cesium – 137
      • 44 thousand Curies of strontium – 90
      • 1,1 thousand Curies of plutonium – 240
  2. Atomic stations and research-and-development reactors
    Hyzone – 3 (3Н), carbon – 14 (14С), krypton – 35 (35Kr), strontium – 137 (137Sr), caesium – 137 (137Cs), plutonium – 240 (240Pu)
    • Zaporozhskaya Atomic Station (6 water-moderated tank nuclear units – 1000)
    • Yuzhno-Ukrainskaya Atomic Station (3 water-moderated tank nuclear units – 1000)
    • Khmelnitskaya Atomic Station (2 water-moderated tank nuclear units – 1000)
    • Rovenskaya Atomic Station (2 water-moderated tank nuclear units – 440, 2 water-moderated tank nuclear units – 1000)
    • Kiev Institute for Nuclear Research (Research Reactor)
    • Sevastopol Institute of Nuclear Power and Industry (Research Reactor – 100)
  3. Chernobyl facility Ukrytiye
    • 200 tons of uranium fuel is located of overall power 20 million Curies
  4. Interregional Special Plants of Radioactive Wastes Burial (ISPRWB)
    Hyzone – 3 (3Н), caesium – 137 (137Cs), cobalt – 60 (60Со), strontium – 137 (137Sr), polonium – 210 (210Ро), plutonium – 240 (240Pu)
    • In Dnepropetrovsk 148 thousand Curies are located
    • In Lvov 7 thousand Curies are located
    • In Kiev 734 thousand Curies are located
    • In Odessa 61 thousand Curies are located
    • In Donetsk 280 grams – Ra equivalent are located
    • In Kharkov 10 thousand Curies are located
  5. Radionuclide contamination from radiation accidents
    Caesium – 137 (137Cs), strontium – 137 (137Sr), hyzone – 3 (3Н), plutonium – 240 (240Pu), plutonium – 239 (239Pu), plutonium – 238 (238Pu), iodine – 131 (131І)
    • Chernobyl Atomic Station (1986)
    • Kiev Burial of Radioactive Wastes Plant (1990)
    • Kharkov Burial of Radioactive Wastes Plant (1997)
    • Atomic stations (accidents are probable)
  6. Entities and organizations using radioactive substances, radioisotopic devices and sources of ionizing radiation
    • Over 7 thousand of entities and organizations in Ukraine
    • Total number of radioactive devices and sources of ionizing radiation exceeds 100 thousand of units
  7. Nuclear tests
    Hyzone – 3 (3Н), carbon – 14 (14С), krypton – 85 (85Kr), strontium – 137 (137Sr), caesium – 90 (90Cs), plutonium – 240 (240Pu)
  8. Use in metallurgy of radioactively contaminated scrap metal.

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